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When Melodies Gather: Oral Art of the Mahra


The following documents the original digital publication When Melodies Gather: Oral Art of the Mahra by Samuel Liebhaber (Stanford University Press, 2018). DOI: 10.21627/2018wmg ISBN: 9781503605251

Download video transcript.


The Mahra people of the southern Arabian Peninsula have no written language but instead possess a rich oral tradition. When Melodies Gather, by Samuel Liebhaber, takes readers on a tour through their poetry, collected by the author in audio and video recordings over the course of several years.

Based on this material, Liebhaber develops a systematic approach to Mahri poetry that challenges genre-based categorizations. By taking into account all Mahri poetic expressions—the majority of which do not belong to any of the known genres of Arabian poetry—Liebhaber creates a blueprint for understanding how oral poetry is conceived and composed by native practitioners. Each poem is embedded in a conceptual framework that highlights formal similarities between them and recapitulates how Mahri poets craft poems and how their audiences are primed to receive them. The framework is complemented by an accessible introduction to the historical and cultural context of the people, their region, and language.

The web-based medium allows users not only to delve into the classification system and explore the diversity and complexity of the Mahra's poetic expressions, but also to experience the formation of a poem in the moment. Through a series of questions designed to define the social context in which a poem is being created, the reader is taken on an experiential tour through the corpus that highlights the embeddedness of poetry in the Mahra’s everyday practices.

The project was published in June 2018 at http://whenmelodiesgather.org. It is the second publication of Stanford University Press’s initiative for the publication of interactive scholarly works funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

Technical Requirements

This project is viewable at time of publication via any active JavaScript-enabled browser (Safari, Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer/Edge, Opera) on a desktop, tablet, or mobile device connected to the internet. Because it contains audio and video, it is best experienced on a device equipped with audio output.

Technical Specifications

The project relies on the Scalar (version 2.5.5) platform run in a LAMP server environment. Custom CSS styles and JavaScript are deployed via the Scalar dashboard and/or imported from local directories on the server. Visualizations use D3 coding. Video and audio are sourced through the Scalar media players from the SUP media server.

User Experience

When Melodies Gather is meant to provide an analogue to the processes of thought and memory that generate oral poems in the endangered Mahri language of Yemen and Oman. Browsing through the poems in this collection, a visitor can be brought more closely into the cognitive realm of the poet, where multiple vectors of creativity, memory, and habit come together to forge a novel poetic creation.

Figure 1

Once past the initial splash page (see fig. 1), visitors to the site are initially offered the chance to choose among four options on the overview page (see fig. 2). About the Mahra allows visitors to read further about Mahri history, society, geography, and language. Theory of Classification allows them to read a scholarly narrative about the conceptual categorizations of poetry that undergird the exhibit and visualizations. Find Your Poem is a portal to the multinodal and bifurcating exhibit of Mahri poetry. Born to be Digital? offers a brief justification of why a digital format was adopted for this scholarship.

Figure 2

“About the Mahra” leads to four pathways: 1) Geography, 2) History, 3) Society, and 4) Mahri Language (see fig. 3).

Figure 3

The Geography pathway provides introductory material and then a region-by-region analysis of the Governorate of al-Mahra and Dhofar—seven regions total (see fig. 4).

Figure 4

Each regional page contains basic information about that specific region and a map.

The History pathway brings the visitor to an introductory page (see fig. 5) that features a review of historical sources, linked to a sequence of seven pages, arranged chronologically, that move from the pre-Islamic era to the sixteenth century CE.

Figure 5

Visitors may elect to learn about Mahri society through the Society pathway. They will be brought to an introductory page (see fig. 6) that offers the following contents: 1) Tribal Mahra, 2) List of Tribes, 3) Tribal Confederacies, 4) Tribal Governance, 5) Non-Affiliated Mahra, and 6) Sacerdotal and Trade Lineages. Each page contains information on the header’s topic.

Figure 6

Visitors may also explore the Language pathway. They are brought to an introductory page that has links to the following subpages: 1) Mahri or Mehri?, 2) Linguistic Features, 3) Number of Speakers, 4) Endangerment, and 5) Note on Transcription (see fig. 7).

Figure 7

Returning to the overview page (see fig. 2), visitors may elect to read about how this project unfolded within the framework of the digital humanities. This path contains a single page, Born to be Digital.

From the overview page visitors may also elect to read about the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of the poetry exhibit by choosing Theory of Classification (see fig. 8).

Figure 8

This page is rich in links and lays out the categories and variables programed into the Find Your Poem suite. This pathway is available to visitors to the site who do not wish to proceed through the self-guided, informal narrative structure pathway of the Find Your Poem section. Visitors may elect to learn about the various parameters of Mahri poetry by visiting the five different fields on this page, each of which represents one of the parameters: Topic, Line Structure, Poem Length, Performance Type, and Genre. Each field contains a link to general information on the parameter (e.g., Topic) or shortcut links to the specific types of each parameters (e.g., Occasional and Sentimental, see fig. 8). Beneath the five fields, visitors can find the complete pathway visualization upon which the “Choose Your Own Poem” suite is organized. Hovering over the terms causes a small pop-up information box to appear; visitors can click on that in order to go to a page with more detailed information about the item. The circular nodes can also be clicked on as a shortcut into the corresponding page location in the Find Your Poem suite.

Returning to the five fields (see fig. 8, top), clicking on the field Topic takes visitors to a page that contains links to pages with detailed information on poems with Occasional and Sentimental topics (see fig. 9).

Figure 9

Clicking on the Occasional or Sentimental link takes visitors to a page with links to specific poems that bear the corresponding Occasional or Sentimental tags (see fig. 10).

Figure 10

Returning to Theory of Classification (see fig. 8), visitors may click on the field Line Structure, which takes them to a page that contains links to pages with detailed information on poems with the following line structures: Tristich, Hemistich, and Strophic (see fig.11). Visitors to these three pages will find detailed information on poems that feature those line structures, as well as links to poems that are tagged by these terms.

Figure 11

Returning to Theory of Classification (see fig. 8), visitors may click on the field Poem Length, which will take them to a page that contains links to pages with detailed information on poems with the following line structures: Couplet, Multiline Monothematic, and Multiline Polythematic (see fig. 12). Visitors to these three pages will find detailed information on poems of these three lengths, as well as links to poems that are tagged by the terms Couplet, Multiline Monothematic, and Multiline Polythematic.

Figure 12

Returning to Theory of Classification (see fig. 8), visitors may click on the field Performance Type, which will take them to a page that contains links to pages with detailed information on poems with the following performance types: Collective Chant, Recitation, and Sung (see fig. 13). Visitors to these three pages will find detailed information on poems bearing these performance types as well as links to poems that are tagged by the terms Collective Chant, Recitation, and Sung.

Figure 13

Returning to Theory of Classification (see fig. 8), visitors may click on the field Genre, which will take them to a page that contains general information about genre in Mahri poetry, contains links to pages with detailed information on poems that are either Genre Marked or Genre Unmarked, and is tagged to eight unique pages, each of which contains information on a specific genre of Mahri poetry: ʾAhāzīj, ʾOdi we-krēm krēm, Dāndān, Šemrēt, Nuṣṣ ḳṣīdet, Qaṣīda ghināʾiyya, Reǧzit, Samiʿīn (see fig. 14).

Figure 14

Visitors who click on a specific genre are taken to page that explains the characteristics of that genre, links to specific poems that pertain to this genre, and includes links to the theoretical parameter pages that characterize the genre. For instance, visitors who click on the ʾŌdī we-krēm krēm will be taken to the page that lays out the features of that genre (see fig. 15).

Figure 15

Returning to the overview page (see fig. 2), visitors may select the field Find Your Poem, which takes visitors to a page (see fig. 16), that welcomes them to the Find Your Poem suite, which they can enter by clicking on the field called Begin Your Adventure. Visitors can also choose to click on the field Skip to the Index of Poems, which takes visitors to a list of all of the poems contained in the exhibit, organized according to region, title, poems from the Dīwān of Ḥājj Dākōn, and title (see fig. 17). The subsection in the Index of Poems (see fig. 17) in the which poems are listed By Poet, Transmitter, or Singer contain linked pages for each individual poet, transmitter, or singer named in this exhibit.


Figure 16
Figure 17

Visitors who click on the field called Begin Your Adventure are taken to the first node in the Find Your Poem suite (see fig. 18), which poses a question about what topic the poem deals with, whether occasional or sentimental. This node corresponds to the Topic parameter of the theoretical classification scheme. The visitor is given the option of choosing either an occasion or a sentiment, and the choice will bring the visitor to the next corresponding bifurcation in the suite. Beneath the question and choice field, visitors will find the digital visualization—the same visualization presented in toto on the page Theory of Classification (see fig. 8). However, in the Find Your Poem suite, the visualization extends only along the pathway determined by the nodes chosen. The visualization unfolds as the visitor proceeds through the questions, each of which offers the visitor a new binary choice. Hovering over a word in the visualization generates a pop-up box with some basic information on the word; visitors may click on the pop-up, which will take them to the corresponding page in the Theory of Classification” section. Clicking on the node will take the visitor to the corresponding parameter page in the Theory of Classification, because each node corresponds to a parameter and the possibilities encoded within it.

Figure 18

Example I: Clicking on “An occasion” will bring the visitor to the next binary choice: a question of whether the poet will follow a poetic template or strike out on their own (see fig. 19). This corresponds to the Genre parameter in the Theory of Classification page (see fig. 8).

Figure 19

Clicking on “I’ll stick to a specific template” will take the visitor to the next binary choice: whether the poet feels confident in undertaking one of the more complicated and venerated genres of poetry (see fig. 20), which corresponds to the Genre parameter and the Genre Marked subparameter.

Figure 20

Clicking on “I’m a respected poet” will take the visitor to the next binary choice: whether they feel comfortable composing poems according to public-facing genres or whether they prefer genres that have more limited circulation (see fig. 21). This choice corresponds to a difference between the public-facing genres Reǧzit and ʾŌdī we-krēm krēm (which have their own separate pages under Theory of Classification → Genre) and the more private Dāndān and Sāmiʿīn genres (which have their own separate pages under Theory of Classification → Genre).

Figure 21

The next node asks whether the visitor has the time to compose a long or a short poem (see fig. 21), which corresponds to the Length parameter in Theory of Classification (see fig. 8). This choice will lead the visitor to one of the two possible genres: the short form couplets of the Reǧzit genre or the multiline polythematic poems of the ʾŌdī we-krēm krēm genre, each of which has its own page in the index of genres under Theory of Classification (see fig. 8).

Clicking on “I have to come up with a catchy line quick!” will take the visitor to the next binary choice: whether you will be performing your poem by yourself or with a group of people (see fig. 22). This corresponds to the Performance parameter in Theory of Classification (see fig. 8).

Figure 22

Clicking on the “No; it’ll just be me” option will take the visitor to the endpoint of this pathway: Individual Reǧzit (see fig. 23), which contains a brief description of the type of poem that satisfies all of the conditions implicated in the specific pathway chosen by the visitor, as well as all of the specific poems in the digital exhibit that qualify. Visitor may click on the field called Start a new adventure to begin again from the first node/binary choice (Topic) or click on one of the poems to learn more about it.

Figure 23

For example, if “The Waning Years of the Afrari Sultanate” is selected, the visitor will be taken to a page that features this poem (see fig. 24). This page includes some introductory material (author, performance, etc.), a recording of the poem, transliteration of the poem (including links featuring lexical information, including Semitic consonantal roots, for many of the words), English translation, analysis of individual lines, and then six fields that link the parameters of the poem (including region in al-Mahra where the poem is from) to the pages in Theory of Classification (see fig. 8) and Geography (see fig. 4). Finally, by clicking the field called Start a New Adventure, the visitor is taken back to the first node (Topic, see fig. 18).

Figure 24

When hovering over the highlighted word egerf (for example) in the first couplet, a pop-up box appears that contains basic lexical information about the word. By clicking on “Go to note,” the visitor is taken to an independent page for the word and its corresponding root. The roots can be used to locate the term in the Glossary (see fig. 25).

Figure 25

Example II: A visitor in the Find Your Poem suite may choose to follow the sentimental pathway from the Topic node (see fig. 18). This brings to view to a binary choice between writing a poem that names the love object or keeps the object anonymous (see fig. 26). This corresponds to a distinction in poems between named and unnamed referents described in the Sentimental page in Theory of Classification.

Figure 26

Visitors who choose “No worries; everyone is on board” (which corresponds to Specified Referent) are taken to the next binary option: whether the poet will follow a specific poetic template or not (see fig. 27). This corresponds to the Genre parameter in the Theory of Classification, and whether the poem is Genre Marked or Genre Unmarked.

Figure 27

Choosing “I’ll go wherever the mood takes me” (Genre Unmarked) leads the visitor to the one exceptional node in the entire Find Your Poem because it does not feature a binary choice but obligates the visitor to continue along a unitary path (see fig. 28). This is due to the fact that all of the previous choices implicate a personal and private poem, and any parameters that yield a public-facing performance are not valid. All other pathways have the performance parameter choice at this point in the suite, but this non-choice node was kept to ensure that all pathways have the same number of nodes.

Figure 28

By clicking “People’s expectations vary,” the visitor is taken to the final binary choice: whether the poem embraces a number of themes and ideas or is limited to one theme or idea (see fig. 29). This choice corresponds to the Length parameter in Theory of Classification (see fig. 8).

Figure 29

By selecting “This’ll be quick,” the visitor opts for Multiline Monothematic poetry on the visualization and arrives at the end of this pathway (see fig. 30).

Figure 30

The visitor may select any poem to find out more about it. Selecting “A Slippery Father,” for instance, yields the poem “A Slippery Father” (see fig. 31). This page, like the poem that resulted from Example I, includes introductory material about the poem, a recording of the poem being recited, transcription of the poem (including informational pop-ups for highlighted lexical items), English translation, and parameter fields that link to Theory of Classification (see fig. 8).

Figure 31

There are fifteen possible endpoints for the Find Your Poem suite, but they all follow the same principle as the two examples just outlined.

Finally, the site contains a table of contents that is accessible from the upper left corner of every page. The table of contents contains pages that are not linked through the four primary options (see fig. 2). The index includes a page for Acknowledgements, an Index of all of the poems (64 total) in the exhibit, the Glossary (previously referenced in this document in fig. 25), Bibliographies (see fig. 32). The bibliographies are divided into two categories that link to two different pages: Language and Linguistics and Society, History, and Culture.

Figure 32

A web archive of this project can be accessed via the “Archive” link on the project’s cover page at http://whenmelodiesgather.org


The project is built within Scalar, a content management system that automatically generates URLs that match the author-defined page or media title. What appears in the address bar reflects that naming structure. However, the content is not stored as separate html units but rather compiled as an RDF-XML/JSON file. The database structure is defined by the open-source Scalar platform, and the scripts that render the content draw it from the RDF data. This data constitutes 1553 unique URL pages and 112 pieces of media, including image, sound, and video. A separate media directory contains all images. Audio and video are stored in the project’s archive in the Stanford Digital Repository.

Two pages sit outside the Scalar platform: the landing page and the terms-of-use page (although both these pages are replicated in the database environment as well). These are intentionally separate from the database so they can be maintained and updated to redirect as necessary based on the need for archive access.

Note that in the Stanford Digital Repository archive collection, file names have been changed for the following media objects:

  • Conventional Opening.mp3 has been changed to ConventionalOpening.mp3
  • Diwan15recited&sung.mp3 has been changed to Diwan15recited-sung.mp3
  • Diwan16sung_Askari&Hajj.mp3 has been changed to Diwan16sung_Askari_Hajj.mp3
  • Smimet Enetror.mp3 has been changed to Smimet_Enetror.mp3
  • Diwan14recited&sung.mp3 has been changed to Diwan14recited-sung.mp3
  • Diwan15sung(Askari).m4v has been changed to Diwan15sungAskari.m4v
  • Rescue of Sibi.mp3 has been changed to Rescue_of_Sibi.mp3
  • tawwen_netred-s'id.mp3 has been changed to tawwen_netred-sid.mp3

The video embedded on the poem page for Little Jewel Said is hosted on youtube and is not included in the archive. The youtube url is https://youtu.be/lXdjYp_LU58


Author: Samuel Liebhaber

Composers, Performers, and Readers:

ʿĪsā Kedḥayt, Sālim Muṭīʿ al-Sulaymī, Jumʿān ʿAlī bir Ḳerḥayf, Bir Frēǧ Kalšāt, Ḥājj Dākōn, ʾAḥmad ʿAlī Mbarek, ʿAlī ʿAwaź al-Jidḥī, ʿAwaź bir ʿAlī Awaź al-Jidḥī’s uncle, ʿĪsā ʿAlī Raʿfīt's mother's father, Raġbōn birt Saʿīd Ḥawr, Ḳantōrī Belḥāf, ʿAbdallāh Raʿfīt and ʿĪsā Kedḥayt, Muṣabbiḥ bir Ḥamtōt bir Ḳamṣayt, Bḫīt bir Maḥrūs Qhōr Thawʿar al-Mahri, Ḥmēd bir Sālim bir Baʿbēt, Sād Sheyl, Mnē, Muḥammad Sālim al-Jidḥī, Muḥammad bir Marṭayf, Raġbōn birt Saʿīd, Saʿīd bir Laʿṭayṭ al-Jidḥī (Ǧēdeḥ), ʿAlī bir Erabḫ bir Zaʿbenōt, Ṭannāf bir Saʿd Ḥamtōt, Yaḥyā al-Ḍāwī Belḥāf, Sālim bir Slēm bir Ṣmōdā, ʿAbd al-Saʿīd bin ʿAfrār (“Shaykh Hamza”), ʿAmr Sālim Šalmōten al-Jidḥī, ʿAskarī Ḥujayrān, ʿAwaź bir ʿAlī Awaź al-Jidḥī, ʿAwaź bir ʿAlī Awaź, ʿĪsā ʿAlī Raʿfīt, Muḥammad Mushaʿjil, Musabbih Qamsayt, Musallim bir Rāmes, Ḳrāṭās Maʿwīḏ

D3 Visualizations: Steven Braun

Media Digitization: Richard Chen and Dona Tatour

Lexical Indexing: Samuel Liebhaber and Cassandra Wanna


Language and Linguistics

Al-Aghbari, Khalsa 2012. Noun plurality in Jebbāli. PhD diss., University of Florida.

Al-Aidaroos, Mustafa Zein 1996. An introduction to the Mehri tongues. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 1 (1): 27–46.

— 1999. Arabic alphabet for Mehri phonemes. Al-Yaman Journal 4 (10): 5-35.

— 2001. Modern South Arabian languages and Classical Arabic: A comparative study. Symposium: Languages and Dialects of Yaman, Aden 2–3 April 2000. Aden: Aden University Printing & Publishing House. 47–63.

Al-ʾAzharī, Abū Manṣūr 1967. Tahdhīb al-lugha. Edited by ʿAbd al-Sallām Muḥammad Hārūn. 15 vols. Cairo: al-Dār al-Miṣriyya li-al-Taʾlīf wa-al-Tarjama.

Al-Dahrī, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz 2003. Al-lahja al-suquṭriyya wa-mā warad minhā fi al-lugha al-ʿarabiyya. Hadhramawt: Dār Hadhramawt li-l-Dirāsāt wa-l-Nashr.

Alfadly, Hassan Obeid Abdulla 2007. A study on the morphology of Mehri of Qishn dialect in Yemen. PhD diss., Universiti Sains Malaysia.

—  2009. New finds on word formation processes in Mehri of Qishn in Yemen. Afroasiatic Studies in Memory of Robert Hetzron: Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the North American Conference on Afroasiatic Linguistics (NACAL 35). Edited by Charles G. Häberl. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars. 271–95.

Al-Kathīrī, ʿAmar 2013. Al-lugha al-shaḥriyya: Dirāsa fī ʾaṣwātihā. MA thesis, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman.

Al-Kathīrī, Ḥamda Ṭālib 2016(?). Mahriyyat: Qāmūs mubassaṭ ʿan al-lugha al-mahriyya. Najrān: Ṭibāʿat al-Mamlaka al-ʿArabiyya al-Saʿūdiyya, Wizārat al-Tarbiyya wa-al-Taʿlīm, ʾIdārat al-Tarbiyya fī Minṭaqat Najrān.

Al-Mahrī, Aḥmad Tuwayb Saʿd 2009. Jawharat qāmūs al-lugha al-mahriyya. Abu Dhabi: Maktabat al-Faqīh.

Al-Mahrī, Muḥammad b. Musallim Dublān 2006. Takallam…al-lahja al-Mahriyya. No publishing information available.

Almakrami, M.H. 2015. Number, gender and tense in Aljudhi dialect of Mehri language in Saudi Arabia. Theory and Practice in Language Studies 5 (11): 2230.

Al-Mashani, Muhammad 1999. The lexical relationship between Classical Arabic and Shehri: A comparative analytical study. PhD diss., University of Manchester.

Aloufi, Amani 2016. A grammatical sketch of Soqotri: With special consideration of negative polarity. MA thesis, Northeastern Illinois University.

Al-Qumairi, Saeed Saad Najadan 2013. Morpho-syntactic features of Mahri language in Yemen: An ethno-narrative study. MA thesis, University of Malaysia.

— 2015. A minimalist analysis of the animal coding system in Mehri language within probe- goal matching approach. International Academic Journal of Social Science 1 (2): 177–91.

Alrowsa, Waleed Abdullah 2014. Question formation in Mehri.  PhD diss., University of Florida.

Al-Shaḥrī, ʿAlī Aḥmad 2000. Lughat ʿād. Abu Dhabi: al-Muʾassasa al-Waṭaniyya li-al-Taghlīf wa-al-Ṭibāʿa.

Al-Shaḥrī, Sālim Suhayl ʿAlī 2007. The Shahri language and its relationship with Classical Arabic (a comparative study). MA thesis, Yarmuk University, Jordan.

Al-Ways, ʿAbd al-Majīd Yāsīn 2004. Fiqh al-ʿarabiyya wa-sirr al-lugha al-mahriyya. Sana’a: Sana’a University Press.

Arnold, Werner 1993. Zur Position des Hobyot in den neusüdarabischen Sprachen. Zeitschrift für Arabische Linguistik 25: 17–24.

Baalbaki, Ramzi 1983. Early Arab lexicographers and the use of Semitic languages. Berytus 31: 117-27.

Balḥāf, ʿĀmir Fāʾil Muḥammad 2016. Al-Lugha al-mahriyya al-muʿāṣira bayn ʿarabiyyatayn. Riyadh: Markaz Ḥamad al-Jāsir al-Thaqāfī.

Bellem, Alex & Janet C.E. Watson 2014. Backing and glottalization in three SWAP language varieties. Arab and Arabic linguistics: Traditional and new theoretical approaches. Edited by M.E.B. Giolfo. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 169–207.

Bender, Marvin L. 1970. A preliminary investigation of South Arabian. Proceedings of the Third International Conference of Ethiopian Studies. Addis Ababa 1966. 3 vols. Addis Ababa. vol. 2: 26–37.

Bendjaballah, Sabrina & Philippe Ségéral 2013. Remarques sur la gémination dans le système verbal du mehri (sudarabique moderne). Phonologie, morphologie, syntaxe: Mélanges offerts à Jean-Pierre Angoujard. Edited by Ali Tifrit. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes. 31–59.

— 2014a. The phonology of ‘idle glottis’ consonants in the Mehri of Oman (Modern South Arabian). Journal of Semitic Studies 59 (1): 161–204.

— 2014b. En Oman, un trésor linguistique menace. Pour la Science 82: 104–9.

— 2017a. On the verb forms derived from four h-initial roots in the Mehri language of Oman. Journal of Semitic Studies 62 (1): 199–215.

— 2017b. The vocalic system of the Mehri of Oman. Journal of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics 9 (1-2): 160-90.

Bergsträßer, Gotthelf 1928. Südarabisch-Äthiopisch. III. Mehri. Einführung in die semitischen Sprachen. Sprachproben und grammatische Skizzen. München: Max Hueber (reprint Darmstadt, 1993). 126–31.

Bittner, Maximilian 1908. Rezension zu Carl Brockelmann: Grundriß der vergleichenden Grammatik der semitischen Sprachen. Band 1.
Berlin, 1908. Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 22: 422–30.

— 1909. Studien zur Laut- und Formenlehre der Mehri-Sprache in Südarabien. I. Zum Nomen im engeren Sinne. Wien: Hölder.

— 1913a. Studien zur Laut- und Formenlehre der Mehri-Sprache in Südarabien. III. Zum Pronomen und zum Numerale. Wien: Hölder.

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— 1915. Studien zur Laut- und Formenlehre der Mehri-Sprache in Südarabien. V. Zu ausgewählten Texten. Wien: Hölder.

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— 1918c. Charakteristik der Sprache der Insel Soqotra. Anzeiger der pilosophisch-historischen Klasse der Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien 55: 48–83.

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— 2013. The diachronic background of the verbs wīda and ġerōb ‘to know’ in Mehri. Archaism and Innovation in the Semitic Languages. Edited by Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala & Wilfred G.E. Watson. Cordoba: Oriens. 1–32.

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